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      Time Period &

       Movements                                  Historical Significance (politics & society)                                        Artists

17th century

1600’s

Baroque & Classicism

The Baroque Movement-

One of the most compelling periods of Western art

This movement had conceptions of monarchy, iconography, handling of paint, and compositions as well as the depiction of space and movement.

Its intensity and immediacy of art and its individualism and detail could be seen in such things as the convincing rendering of cloth and skin textures.

Characterized by great drama, rich deep color, and intense light and dark shadows- as opposed to the Renaissance movement, which usually showed the moment before an event took place. Baroque chose the most dramatic point, it was the moment when the action was occurring.

Evoked emotion and passion- reminiscent of the opera

 

Classicism-

-influenced by roman art

-many holy depictions

-very mathematical

·   The classicism movement was mostly created by Louis XIV – wanted to compete with Roman art

-the royal family

Nicolas Poussin used roman technique with a French twist

History of the 17th Century in France

1598 Henry IV- Edict of Nantes-Protestants were given religious freedom

1608- Samuel de Champlain founded the French colony of Quebec

1618 and 1648- 30 Years War- France replaced Spain as the greatest power in Europe

1643-1715- Louis XIV ruled France and consolidated absolute authority

1672-78-  French-Dutch War (Spain also became involved)

1673- Explorers ventured throughout the Mississippi Valley

1682- French court moves to Versailles

1689-1694- Economic Disaster and Great Famine

1699- French founded the Louisiana colony

Nicolas Poussin

 

Charles Le Brun

 

Georges de La Tour

 

18th century

1700’s

Rococo & Neoclassicism

Rococo-

Relaxed Style

Nature was the foundation of their art

Theme or artwork was love, flirtation, and seduction

Major tradition in European art

Artwork was escapist

Sexually suggestive steam covering their actions

Naked figures of women and children

Painted royalty, everyday life, and gods and goddesses

It was created during a time when new ideas about human existence were introduced and Rococo art is the visual representation of the optimism people felt in response to that

The word "rococo" is derived from "rocaille", meaning "rock work" or "shell work"

The paintings have a light, casual, irregular design

 The Rococo style is characterized by pastel colors, gracefully delicate curving forms, fanciful figures, and a lighthearted mood

Extreme highlights are placed on the subject matter and the overall work is light in color, effect, and emotion.

Artists paid special attention to fine detail.

 

Neoclassicism-

A French art style that originated as a reaction to the Baroque in the mid-eighteenth century, and continued into the middle of the nineteenth century

It sought to revive the ideals of ancient Greek and Roman art

Neoclassic artists used classical forms to express their ideas about courage, sacrifice, and love of country

The paintings are characterized by simplicity, proportion, and calm emotion

Critics condemned it as "tasteless, frivolous, and symbolic of a corrupt society".

Neoclassicism

18th century saw the turn to this

Implies a particular classic style

Severe and unemotional, reflecting the styles of ancient Greece and Rome

Its rigidity was a reaction to the over bred Rococo style, and the emotional Baroque style

The rise of the period was part of a general revival of interest in classical thought

18th Century History

Society

Women are the most respected and free sex

They basically rule society

Women: wear limp garments 2 length at waist with sleeves sewn in (corset like body)

High hair—pomade

Took up 3 times as much space as men (with clothes-ultra feminine look)

Men: full skirted strong vertical lines and rows of buttons, coat skirts, 1780s brought shorter waist coats and fold over collar

 

Basic History

King Louis XV ruling

Embracing beauty instead of conquering everything—art came from

1763 7 year war ends

1783 treaty of Versailles

1789 French revolution begins

Social system was church, nobles, and peasants.

1791 new constitution which made France had limited monarchy

 

Religion

Because with catholic in power and after revolution, people thought they were being oppressed

New republic= atheist

Antoine Watteau

 

François Boucher

 

Jacques Louis David

 

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres

 

 

19th century

1800’s

Romanticism & Impressionism (Post)

 

Romanticism

-                   *Started in Germany

-                   *aimed to distinguish “modern” traits in the arts from “classical” traits

-                   *no real definition of romanticism

-                   *deemed as natural rather than formal order in architecture came to be quality in demand, and “natural” styles of Gothic, which had died, became more popular again

-                   *during this time period, ruins were fascinating whereas before they were not seen as anything special

-                   *Many buildings in Paris were built after some sort of a ruin

-                       

Post Impressionism

 

·         Collection of different responses to impressionism

·         Artists did not think of themselves as post impressionists

·         New approaches to color, perspective, and subject

·         Bold composition was a revelation

·         Included different sub-groups

o   Fauvism

o   Pointilism

o   Nabis

o   Symbolism

·         Led to development of Expressionism (exaggeration and distortion)

·         Bright, light colors

·         Flattened and simplified landscapes

 

  Napoleonic Era

  the French Revolution ended in 1799 when Napolein Bonaparte was crowned First Consul; crowned himself emperor Napoleon I - placed the Pope's crown in his head

  -       central administration = very powerful

  -       military campaigns expanded empire

  defeated in Russia, 1812; again at Waterloo, 1815

  Napoleon was replaced by Louis XVIII, who is later overthrown by Charles X

              Charles X’s reign

  -       very old school – led to the July Revolution of 180

  o    July Monarchy elected Louis Philippe reigned 1830-1848; Prosperity throughout France during this time

  Louis Napoleon (nephew of Napoleon I) was elected the first president of the Second Republic

  -       Became emperor Napoleon III in 1852 by national plebiscite

  o    Commissioned Baron Houssman to redesign Paris and started the French Industrial Revolution

  FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR BEAGNS IN 1870

              Germans capture Paris and claim Alsace and Lorraine regions of France

  -       Napoleon III is exiled (ironic, much? Maybe it runs in the family … )

  The Third Republic begins in 1871

              Monarchy is ended during the building of the Republic

              Government of France begins to resemble and redesign to what it is in the twentieth century

   1870-1900

   Napoleonic Era

Napoleon I

  1870-1871 French-Prussian War

  1871 Third Republic was established

  1887-1889 Eiffel Tower was built

1800's - Poltical and Societal events

 

 

Eugène Delacroix

 

Gustave Courbet

 

Jean François Millet

 

Claude Monet

 

Pierre Auguste Renoir

 

Edgar Degas

 

Paul Gaugin

 

Paul Cezanne

 

Georges Seurat

 

Auguste Rodin*

20th Century

1900’s

 Fauvism & Cubism

Fauvism

“the Joy of Life” sums up the spirit and style of Fauvism – has flat lines, heavy undulating outlines and “primitive” form which Fauvism was

Fauvism came into being because people described the artists that painted like this as fauves or wild beasts

The point of the movement was to seek more personal forms of expression then had been known to everyone

The style was like African woodcarvings, sculptures, and textiles

The subject matter was varied as the methods of painting, although many subjects familiar in Impressionist and Post-Impression painting

By: Jessica Dansereau

Wanted to suggest or evoke less apparent senses of smell and taste

Wanted viewer to put his own meaning into art

Cubism appeared in the first decade of the 1900’s in Paris’ art scene

Difficult to judge scale, size, and relationship between objects

Word cubism comes from an art critic who said Braque had reduced everything to cubes

Influenced by African sculptures

Paul Cezanne planted roots for cubism in his later works

Works were two-dimensional

Tilted object towards the viewer and maintained a different viewpoint elsewhere

Two Types

Analytic Cubism

Popular from 1908-1911

Reduced object to cones, spheres, and cylinders

Show object looking different when looked at from different directions

Painted picture from different angles and not one viewpoint

Used subdued colors

Synthetic Cubism

Popular from 1912-1919

First time a collage was considered a piece of fine art

Brought abstract elements together to create object

Attached newspaper, mirrors, and wood to paintings

Thought it would make art more realistic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20th century France!

                1900-1933

1900- major advances in science- quantum theory…

1903- first tour de france

1906- Picasso invents cubism

World War II- started in 1914

Start of WW I- 1914 In the war 1.4 million men were killed

After the war many immigrants came into France to replace the men who had died in war in their jobs

1928 penicillin was invented

Treaty of Versailles was signed in 1917 to end WW I

Still color photography process invented in 1907

In between the wars, the France culture was adapting and bringing in artists (avant garde)

The French economy was growing

By: Erin Webster

 

Henri Matisse

 

Pablo Picasso

 

Marc Chagall

 

Georges Braque